The Indonesian tsunami early warning system (INATEWS) has been developed and operated after the tsunami struck Aceh in December 2004. The INATEWS is based on a relationship model of earthquake parameters and tsunami potential. At the tsunami observation stage, INATEWS is still experiencing difficulties due to limited buoy stations. Alternative tsunami observations have been investigated using ionospheric TEC data from GPS signal observations. This paper reviews the methods that have been studied and used for tsunami detection using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) from GNSS data. Status and development plans of real-time GNSS resource utilization for TEC measurement in Indonesia and its application for INATEWS augmentation are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69-85
Number of pages17
JournalScience of Tsunami Hazards
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • GNSS
  • Total Electron Content (TEC)


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