Since the early 2000s, product–service systems (PSS) have become a research concern because the benefits provided cover many aspects. PSS is divided into three types, namely, Type 1: product-oriented, Type 2: use-oriented, and Type 3: result-oriented. PSS is a system comprising different components. As a system compiler, the components are the starting point for the value-creation process and continue to impact the PSS’s life cycle. However, elaboration of PSS components in previous studies has lacked. This situation indicates an urgent need to investigate PSS components and, thus, our evaluations of the value creation and the developmental processes of PSS seek to be broad and divergent. The investigation that forms the purpose of this article includes an elaboration of the PSS components, a calculation of the PSS components’ importance levels, statistical testing of the differences in importance levels due to PSS type, correlation testing between components, and a determination of the PSS components concerning the sustainability aspect based on the perspective of customers. The investigation began with the development of a questionnaire and a reliability–validity test. In addition, we identify the PSS components, test the difference in importance level using the Mann–Whitney test, and survey customers to determine the sustainability-related components. This article’s findings can be used to specify the critical point for value creation and PSS development. The elaborated PSS components are products, services, actors, stakeholder relationships, and technology. The difference in importance level indicates that PSS Type 2 customers perceive a distinction in the importance of technology. The essential components of each type of PSS are distinct, necessitating the use of different development strategies, including for sustainability aspects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16216
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • components
  • consumer behavior
  • control point
  • product–service systems
  • value creation


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