Macrophytes as wastewater treatment agents: Nutrient uptake and potential of produced biomass utilization toward circular economy initiatives

Setyo Budi Kurniawan, Azmi Ahmad, Nor Sakinah Mohd Said, Muhammad Fauzul Imron*, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Ahmad Razi Othman, Ipung Fitri Purwanti, Hassimi Abu Hasan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Macrophytes have been widely used as agents in wastewater treatment. The involvement of plants in wastewater treatment cannot be separated from wetland utilization. As one of the green technologies in wastewater treatment plants, wetland exhibits a great performance, especially in removing nutrients from wastewater before the final discharge. It involves the use of plants and consequently produces plant biomasses as treatment byproducts. The produced plant biomasses can be utilized or converted into several valuable compounds, but related information is still limited and scattered. This review summarizes wastewater's nutrient content (macro and micronutrient) that can support plant growth and the performance of constructed wetland (CW) in performing nutrient uptake by using macrophytes as treatment agents. This paper further discusses the potential of the utilization of the produced plant biomasses as bioenergy production materials, including bioethanol, biohydrogen, biogas, and biodiesel. This paper also highlights the conversion of plant biomasses into animal feed, biochar, adsorbent, and fertilizer, which may support clean production and circular economy efforts. The presented review aims to emphasize and explore the utilization of plant biomasses and their conversion into valuable products, which may solve problems related to plant biomass handling during the adoption of CW in wastewater treatment plants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number148219
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume790
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Biochar
  • Bioenergy
  • Cleaner production
  • Fertilizer
  • Wetland
  • Zero waste

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