Magnetic Susceptibility and Hydrogen Cyanide Levels as Proxy Indicator for Gold Mining Pollution in River Sediment

Siti Zulaikah*, Arif Juliansyah, Muhammad Fathur Rouf Hasan, Bambang Heru Iswanto, Mariyanto Mariyanto, Ardyanto Tanjung, Satria Bijaksana, Ann Marie Hirt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sumbawa’s Kuris River is one of the rivers contaminated by the island’s traditional gold mine. In order to detect contaminant levels, we examine the magnetic susceptibility, HCN levels, and the heavy metal contents on the river’s surface sediment. Environmental pollution has been widely assessed using a combination of magnetic properties and geochemical analysis. The goals of this research are to discover how magnetic susceptibility (χ) can be used as a first-order proxy for pollution. The relation between susceptibility and HCN is of particular interest, as this is a major contaminant associated with gold mining. The surface sediment samples were collected at ten different locations along the rivers. The magnetic susceptibility was determined using the Bartington MS2B, and the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration was determined using Argentometric titration. The element content was determined by an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The low-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf) ranges from 71 to 115×10-8 m3/kg, with an average of 97×10-8 m3/kg, and the χfd(%) analysis ranges from 2% to 4%. The presence of spherical iron oxides, which are indicative of combustion byproducts, was also confirmed by SEM. The samples have low magnetic susceptibility but high levels of Hg and HCN. AAS results showed high Fe, Zn, and Cu concentrations in river sediments, with more variable concentrations of Hg, Mn, As, Cr, and Au. Because Fe, Cu, As, Hg, and HCN have a significant Pearson’s correlation with χfd(%), this parameter can be a useful indicator for contamination caused by gold mining waste.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2689-2702
Number of pages14
JournalPertanika Journal of Science and Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • Geochemistry
  • hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
  • magnetic susceptibility
  • river sediments
  • tailings


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