Maximizing diesel removal from contaminated sand using Scirpus mucronatus and assessment of rhizobacteria addition effect

Ipung Fitri Purwanti, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah*, Ainon Hamzah, Mushrifah Idris, Hassan Basri, Mohd Talib Latif, Muhammad Mukhlisin, Setyo Budi Kurniawan*, Muhammad Fauzul Imron

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Phytoremediation is one of the green technologies that is friendly to nature, utilizes fewer chemicals, and exhibits good performance. In this study, phytoremediation was used to treat diesel-contaminated sand using a local aquatic plant species, Scirpus mucronatus, by analyzing the amount of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). Optimization of diesel removal was performed according to Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under pilot-scale conditions. The quadratic model showed the best fit to describe the obtained data. Actual vs. predicted values from BBD showed a total of 9.1 % error for the concentration of TPH in sand and 0 % error for the concentration of TPH in plants. Maximum TPH removal of 42.3 ± 2.1 % was obtained under optimized conditions at a diesel initial concentration of 50 mg/kg, an aeration rate of 0.48 L/min, and a retention time of 72 days. The addition of two species of rhizobacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis) at optimum conditions increased the TPH removal to 51.9 ± 2.6 %. The obtained model and optimum condition can be adopted to treat diesel-contaminated sand within the same TPH range (50–3000 mg/kg) in sand.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere21737
JournalHeliyon
Volume9
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • Bacillus
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Phytoremediation
  • Pollution
  • TPH

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