Due to the limitation of a sole method for removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) which unable to process higher concentrations and limited efficiency of removal. Thus, the integrated reduction and adsorption system was designed by combining microbial fuel cell (MFC) and adsorbent (MOF type HKUST-1, UiO-66, and ZIF-8) to remove Cr(VI). HKUST-1 showed the highest adsorption capacity and Cr(VI) removal percentages compared to other MOF types, reaching 78.616 mg/g and 96.551 % in 90 min (batch adsorption), respectively. In addition, the pseudo-2nd-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm type matched well with the suggested adsorption mechanism based on the adsorption kinetics and isotherms analysis. On the other hand, the highest power density resulted from the simultaneous integration of MFC adsorption, namely 198 mW/m2, and the removal rate of 99.34 % at 75 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration owing to MOF simultaneously adsorbs by forming a coordinating covalent bond and reducing it with electron donor groups in the organic linker of the MOF. Several important factors influencing the reduction rate of Cr(VI) in the MFC adsorption integration were pH, the Cr(VI) concentration, and substrate at the anode. Moreover, the hydrodynamic effect (agitation) can also increase the performance of the MFC, due to an increase in current leading to a high Cr(VI) removal. Furthermore, the MFC-adsorption integration showed better stability up to five cycles for 35 days. Overall, combining adsorption and MFC for Cr(VI) removal provides promising potency to be explored and developed for the wastewater treatment process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103095
JournalJournal of Water Process Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Adsorption
  • Hexavalent chromium
  • Hydrodynamics effects
  • Metal organic framework
  • Microbial fuel cell


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