Mesostructural study on graphenic-based carbon prepared from coconut shells by heat treatment and liquid exfoliation

Deril Ristiani, Retno Asih, Fahmi Astuti, Malik Anjelh Baqiya, Chonthicha Kaewhan, Sarayut Tunmee, Hideki Nakajima, Siriwat Soontaranon, Darminto*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, the effect of heating temperature on the structure of graphenic-based carbon (GC) has been successfully investigated. A series of GC materials was prepared from coconut shells by a green synthesis method. The process includes heating at four temperatures (T = 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C) followed by an exfoliation process assisted by hydrochloric acid (HCl). These materials were characterized by wide- and small-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The WAXS analysis shows Braggs peaks corresponding to the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-like phase. Investigations by FTIR and XPS methods show the presence of carbon-oxygen functional groups such as C=C (carbon with sp2 hybridization), C–C (carbon with sp3 hybridization), and C=O bonds. The sp2 bonds form a 2-dimensional (2D) network in hexagonal lattice, while carbon with sp3 bonds tends to form a 3-dimensional (3D) tetrahedral structure. The BET analysis revealed meso- and micro-pore structures in GC. Heating process reduces the specific surface area and increases pore size of GC. Moreover, increasing the heating temperature induces a decrease in radius of gyration (Rg) and an increase in the formation of 2D structures in GC. The fitting results of SAXS profiles, proved by TEM and XPS, yielded the structure of GC containing the mixture of 2D and 3D structures. Thus, it is suggested that the GC has a mesostructure.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere09032
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Carbon
  • Coconut shell
  • Graphenic
  • Heat treatments
  • Mesostructure
  • SAXS


Dive into the research topics of 'Mesostructural study on graphenic-based carbon prepared from coconut shells by heat treatment and liquid exfoliation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this