Water covers approximately 74% of the Earth’s surface, and it plays many important roles in the lives of all human being. Inland and coastal waters in particular have a direct interface with human society by providing value for food supplies, industrial uses, transportation, commerce, and human health (UNEP 2006). However, many water bodies have encountered severe environmental problems (e.g., eutrophication) in recent decades as a result of human interventions and climate change (Ayres et al. 1996; Haddeland et al. 2014). It is thus crucial to monitor and understand the amount and quality of these water bodies as well as their biogeochemical processes in order to achieve the effective management and sustainable use of the water resources (United Nations Open Working Group 2014).