Gamma distribution is a general type of statistical distribution that can be applied in various fields, mainly when the distribution of data is not symmetrical. When predictor variables also affect positive outcome, then gamma regression plays a role. In many cases, the predictor variables give effect to several responses simultaneously. In this article, we develop a multivariate gamma regression (MGR), which is one type of non-linear regression with response variables that follow a multivariate gamma (MG) distribution. This work also provides the parameter estimation procedure, test statistics, and hypothesis testing for the significance of the parameter, partially and simultaneously. The parameter estimators are obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) that is optimized by numerical iteration using the Berndt-Hall-Hall-Hausman (BHHH) algorithm. The simultaneous test for the model's significance is derived using the maximum likelihood ratio test (MLRT), whereas the partial test uses the Wald test. The proposed MGR model is applied to model the three dimensions of the human development index (HDI) with five predictor variables. The unit of observation is regency/municipality in Java, Indonesia, in 2018. The empirical results show that modeling using multiple predictors makes more sense compared to the model when it only employs a single predictor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number813
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2020


  • Human development dimensions
  • Maximum likelihood estimation
  • Maximum likelihood ratio test
  • Multivariate gamma regression;Wald test


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