Nano Uncaria gambir as Chemopreventive Agent Against Breast Cancer

Andika Pramudya Wardana, Nanik Siti Aminah*, Alfinda Novi Kristanti, Mochamad Zakki Fahmi, Haninda Iffatuz Zahrah, W. Widiyastuti, Hendrix Abdul Ajiz, Ummi Zubaidah, Priangga Adi Wiratama, Yoshiaki Takaya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Breast cancer is one of the main causes of death in women. Uncaria gambir is an Indonesian herbal plant that can be used as an anti-cancer. However, herbal medicines have low bioavailability, which affects their bioactivity. Nanoencapsulation can increase bioavailability and stability of bioactive compounds in herbal medicines. Purpose: This recent finding tried to unravel anti-cancer and chemopreventive of U. gambir nano-encapsulated by Na-alginate. Study Design: U. gambir bioactive compounds were isolated and characterized using UV–Vis spectrometer, FTIR, NMR and HR-MS. U. gambir extract was nanoencapsulated using Na-alginate. Anti-cancer effect was assessed by MTT assay towards T47D cell. Meanwhile, a chemopreventive analysis was carried out in breast cancer mice-induced benzo[α]pyrene. The healthy mice were divided into 8 groups comprising control and treatment. Results: Elucidation of U. gambir ethyl acetate extract confirmed high catechin content, 89.34% (w/w). Successful nanoencapsulation of U. gambir (G-NPs) was indicated. The particle size of G-NPs was 78.40 ± 12.25 nm. Loading efficiency (LE) and loading amount (LA) of G-NPs were 97.56 ± 0.04% and 32.52 ± 0.01%, respectively. G-NPs had an EC50 value of 10.39 ± 3.50 µg/mL, which was more toxic than the EC50 value of extract towards the T47D cell line. Administration of 200 mg/kg BW G-NPs to mice induced by benzo[α]pyrene exhibited SOD and GSH levels of 13.69 ng/mL and 455.6 ng/mL. In addition, the lowest TNF-α level was 27.96 ng/ mL. A dose of 100 mg/kg BW G-NPs could best increase CAT levels by 7.18 ng/mL. There was no damage or histological abnormalities found in histological analysis of the breast tissue in the group given 200 mg/kg BW G-NPs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4471-4484
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • U. gambir
  • breast cancer
  • chemopreventive
  • cytotoxicity
  • nanoencapsulation


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