Numerical analysis of static holdup of fine particles in blast furnace

Sungging Pintowantoro*, Hiroshi Nogami, Jun Ichiro Yagi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


With increased in pulverized coal injection rate into blast furnace, the importance of understanding flow characteristics of powders within packed bed increases because more unburned char and coke fragments would be generated, it would be deteriorate permeability in the blast furnace. Although flow characteristics of dynamic or total holdup of powders in packed beds is found in several reports,) behavior of powders in blast furnace using separate treatment of dynamic and static holdup has yet to be reported. In this study the behavior of static powders was examined through numerical simulation using the "four fluid model",) which included the formulation of static powders behavior. The model results were compared with two dimensional temperature distributions measured in the furnace for three different pulverized coal injections (PCI) rates (100, 200 and 250kg/thm) for validated. The model was applied to quantitative analysis of static powders holdup in the blast furnace operation with high-rate pulverized coal injection. The higher amount of static powders holdup was found mostly in the center lower deadman, above and below the tuyere level, and in upper shaft, for PCI rate 100kg/thm, 150kg/thm, 200kg/thm and 225kg/thm respectively. The lower amount of static powders holdup was found in the raceway region throughout the surface of deadman.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)304-309
Number of pages6
JournalISIJ International
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Blast furnace
  • Chemical reactions
  • Mathematical modeling
  • Multi-phase flow
  • Pulverized coal injection
  • Static powders holdup


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