Off-peak hour delivery system: an agent-based modelling and simulation approach

Kevin Asali, Niniet Indah Arvitrida*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Many cities around the world have experienced an increase in population and pose challenges in planning and managing the freight transportation within the city. Off-peak hour delivery (OPHD) is a strategy of delivering goods in the afternoon and evening to reduce congestion during peak periods, increase the efficiency of delivery companies, and reduce emissions. This research proposed a model of city logistics in the retail supply chain by implementing OPHD in the logistics system. The aim of this study is to explore the extent of potential implementation of OPHD in urban logistics. An agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) approach is applied to model the autonomous and dynamic interactions of stakeholders involved in city logistics systems. Preliminary results are presented in this paper to provide illustrations of the model. It shows that OPHD can significantly reduce the transportation cost and emissions cost, and ABMS is able to provide results that are relatively close to pilot test drive research which is carried out in real world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1617-1624
Number of pages8
JournalProcedia Computer Science
Publication statusPublished - 2024
Event7th Information Systems International Conference, ISICO 2023 - Washington, United States
Duration: 26 Jul 202328 Jul 2023


  • Agent-based simulation
  • City logistic
  • Off-peak hour delivery
  • Pollution
  • Transport


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