Optimization bio-oil production from Chlorella sp. through microwave-assisted pyrolysis using response surface methodology

Mahfud Mahfud*, Lailatul Qadariyah, Haqqyana Haqqyana, Viqhi Aswie

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Optimization can streamline experimental trials by evaluating the parameters and parameter interactions used as the basis for a more optimal downstream process. This study aims to optimize the microwave-assisted pyrolysis process in producing bio-oil from microalgae using response surface methodology (RSM) complemented by an investigation of the reaction mechanisms. A number of key parameters (microwave power, absorbent-to-microalgae ratio, and pyrolysis time) were fine-tuned using a face-centered central composite design. The result showed that microwave technology in slow pyrolysis could produce the bio-oil from microalgae 12 times shorter than conventional heating and quadratic model with a high precision (R2 = 0.9832, R2adj = 0.9616) from RSM optimization in predicting experimental values yielded a peak bio-oil yield of 19.11% under specific conditions: 20 min of pyrolysis time, a 0.19 (w/w) microwave absorber to microalgae ratio, and 583 W power. As the complex biomass, the reaction mechanism in chlorella sp. towards this technology including decarboxylation, decarbonylation, dehydration, cracking, deoxygenation, and esterification was proved in GCMS analysis, revealing the presence of key functional groups such as aliphatic, aromatics, alcohols, nitrogenous compounds, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and Polycyclic Aromatics Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Original languageEnglish
Article number100057
JournalGreen Energy and Resources
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Bio-oil
  • Chlorella sp.
  • Liquid fuel
  • Microwave-assisted pyrolysis
  • Optimization

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