Importance of the work: Application of the organic farming system is intended to support soil quality without any long-term disruption. Several concepts were developed to support the goals of organic farming, such as crop rotation, adjacency plots and soil quality. Objectives: To formulate a planning model by implementing a crop rotation system considering adjacency plots and nutrient cycling. Materials & Methods: Mixed integer linear programming was used to develop the model whose objective was to maximize the profit by seeking the best options for what, when and where to plant crops following economic limitations. Crop rotation was used to solve the yield-shifting problem for sustainable agriculture. Results: The model solved the crop planning problem based on the pull supply chain and maximized land utilization despite expressing the demand in terms of maximizing the profit. The proposed crop planning model proposed the crop planting sequence within organic farming principles. In addition, the model determined the optimum amount of additional nutrients needed within the planning horizon to satisfy the demand. The model tended to increase productivity rather than utilizing another plot to satisfy the demand. The experiment showed that the full allocation condition resulted in higher plot utilization with a profit difference of approximately USD 13,000/planting period. Main finding: The developed optimization model for crop planning could be used as a decision-making tool by farmers to optimize profit and productivity. The experimental results showed that by using the full-allocation scenario, farmers would achieve higher profits and plot utilization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-578
Number of pages10
JournalAgriculture and Natural Resources
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Adjacency plot
  • Agricultural production planning
  • Crop rotation
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Optimization


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