Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) study potential relationships in regression models that distinguish geographic spaces using non-stationary parameters to overcome spatial effects. The use of gamma regression, namely regression with the dependent variable with a gamma distribution, can be an alternative if the data do not follow a normal distribution. Gamma distribution is a continuous set of non-negative values, generally skewed to the right or positive skewness. Gamma regression is developed to be Bivariate Gamma Regression (BGR) when there are two dependent variables with gamma distribution. If the observation units are location points, spatial effects may occur. The Geographically Weighted Bivariate Gamma Regression (GWBGR) model can be a solution for spatial heterogeneity. However, during its development, many cases require information from panel data. Using panel data can provide complete information because it covers several periods, but it allows for temporal effects. This study developed a Geographically and Temporally Weighted Bivariate Gamma Regression (GTWBGR) model to handle spatial and temporal heterogeneity simultaneously. The estimation of the GTWBGR model parameters uses the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method that followed by the numerical iteration of Berndt Hall Hall Hausman (BHHH). The simultaneous testing uses the Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test (MLRT) method to get a test statistic. With a large sample size, the distribution of the test statistic approaches chi-square. Meanwhile, partial testing uses the Z test statistic.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012044
JournalIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2021
Event4th International Conference on Science and Technology Applications in Climate Change, STACLIM 2021 - Selangor, Virtual, Malaysia
Duration: 1 Jul 20212 Jul 2021


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