Parameters adjustments for facile synthesis of high magnetization iron oxide nanoparticles from natural sand

Aldiansyah Wahfiudin, Azzah Dyah Pramata, Sigit Tri Wicaksono*, Qi Hwa Ng, Peng Yong Hoo, Siti Kartini Enche Ab Rahim, Mohd Riduan Jamalludin, Amira Mohd Nasib

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study explores the synthesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) by leveraging natural iron sand and steel wool as primary raw materials within the co-precipitation method, which reduces the cost of production compared to the commercial counterparts. The research systematically investigated the influence of the diethylamine percentage, annealing time and annealing temperature on the SPIONs’ synthesis from natural iron sand by the co-precipitation method. Fe3O4 with varying crystallite sizes, ranging from 11.5 to 14.7 nm, were confirmed. SEM highlighted the nanoparticle agglomeration, a concern addressable through surface modification techniques, as further emphasized by TEM, which confirmed the nano-scale dimensions. Magnetic saturation values were confirmed by VSM, ranging from 37 to 51 emu/g. These values established the superparamagnetic behavior, rendering the nanoparticles suitable for versatile applications. The study identifies a potential threshold effect of the diethylamine concentration on the magnetic saturation and suggests an optimum annealing temperature for energy efficiency. This research contributes valuable insights into harnessing natural iron sand for SPION synthesis, advancing cost-effective and sustainable approaches in nanomaterial development, while emphasizing the importance of parameter customization for producing high-quality SPIONs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101114
JournalNano-Structures and Nano-Objects
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Co-precipitation
  • Iron oxide
  • Magnetite
  • Magnetization
  • Nanoparticles


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