The particle formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite precursor containing two components, Ca(OOCCH3)2 and (NH4)2HPO4 with a ratio of Ca/P = 1.67, in a spray pyrolysis process has been studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation on the transfer of heat and mass from droplets to the surrounding media. The focus included the evaporation of the solvent in the droplets, a second evaporation due to crust formation, the decomposition reaction of each component of the precursor, and a solid-state reaction that included the kinetic parameters of the precursor regarding its two components that formed the hydroxyapatite product. The rate of evaporation and the reacted fraction of the precursor both increased with temperature. The predicted average size of the hydroxyapatite particles agreed well with the experimental results. Therefore, the selected models were also suitable for predicting the average size of particles that contain two components in the precursor solution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-113
Number of pages10
JournalFrontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014


  • CFD
  • droplet
  • hydroxyapatite particle
  • spray pyrolysis
  • tubular furnace


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