Passive cooling strategies to reduce the energy consumption of cooling in hot and humid climates in Indonesia

Tomoko Uno*, Shuichi Hokoi, Sri Nastiti N. Ekasiwi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This chapter proposes strategies for reducing the energy consumption of cooling in residences in hot and humid climates. Based on the results of field measurements and questionnaire surveys in Surabaya, Indonesia, a simulation of indoor thermal environments - with consideration of air conditioner operation - was conducted to evaluate energy consumption by air conditioners. This simulation program considers both heat and moisture transfers in building materials. The combined effects of building airtightness and the opening times of doors and windows for ventilation were examined. The simulation is conducted for the rainy season. Making the whole building airtight results in a small reduction in energy consumption, because the size of the air-conditioned area increases. Meanwhile, making only the air-conditioned room airtight is more effective for reducing cooling energy consumption. Regardless, nighttime ventilation of non-air-conditioned spaces is quite effective in reducing the sensible cooling load. In conjunction with economic growth and requirements for improving indoor environmental quality, energy consumption for cooling is expected to increase rapidly in hot and humid areas. Therefore, the introduction not only of high levels of insulation but also of airtightness, in addition to well-controlled ventilation, is required to achieve energy savings.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSustainable Houses and Living in the Hot-Humid Climates of Asia
PublisherSpringer Singapore
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9789811084652
ISBN (Print)9789811084645
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2018


  • Airtightness
  • Energy saving for cooling
  • Field survey
  • Hot and humid climate
  • Use of air conditioner
  • Ventilation operating time


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