Pervaporation Membranes for Seawater Desalination Based on Geo–rGO–TiO2 Nanocomposites: Part 2—Membranes Performances

Subaer Subaer*, Hamzah Fansuri, Abdul Haris, Misdayanti Misdayanti, Imam Ramadhan, Teguh Wibawa, Yulprista Putri, Harlyenda Ismayanti, Agung Setiawan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This is part 2 of the research on pervaporation membranes for seawater desalination based on Geo–rGO–TiO2 nanocomposite. The quality of the Geo–rGO–TiO2 pervaporation membranes (PV), as well as the suitability of the built pervaporation system, is thoroughly discussed. The four membranes described in detail in the first article were tested for their capabilities using the parameters turbidity, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), and electrical conductivity (EC). The membranes’ flux permeate was measured as a function of temperature, and salt rejection was calculated using the electrical conductivity values of the feed and permeate. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to investigate changes in the chemical composition and internal structure of the membranes after use in pervaporation systems. The morphology of the membrane’s surfaces was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the elemental distribution was observed by using X-ray mapping and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the pervaporation membrane of Geo–rGO–TiO2 (1, 3) achieved a permeate flux as high as 2.29 kg/m2·h with a salt rejection of around 91%. The results of the FTIR and XRD measurements did not show any changes in the functional group and chemical compositions of the membrane after the pervaporation process took place. Long-term pressure and temperature feed cause significant cracking in geopolymer and Geo–TiO2 (3) membranes. SEM results revealed that the surface of all membranes is leached out, and elemental distribution based on X-ray mapping and EDS observations revealed the addition of Na+ ions on the membrane surface. The study’s findings pave the way for more research and development of geopolymers as the basic material for inorganic membranes, particularly with the addition of rGO–TiO2 nanocomposites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1046
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • desalination
  • geopolymer
  • membrane
  • permeate
  • pervaporation


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