Calophyllum inophyllum has been known as a part of the mangrove forest area. This species is distributed primarily in the coastal regions of Indonesia and Africa. It is rich in bioactive compounds and has been used as a traditional medication. This work employed a single replicate of the one-factor-at-a-time experiment method to investigate optimum conditions, which resulted in the highest TPC. The three factors studied were organic solvent type (acetone, ethanol, and methanol), organic solvent concentration in water (50–100%, v/v), and extraction temperature (30–60 °C). The extraction was conducted with the percolation method. The result shows that organic solvent type, organic solvent concentration in water, and extraction temperature significantly affect the TPC, TFC, and the yield of crude extract obtained. The highest TPC (289.12 mg GAE/g of the residue of C. inophyllum leaves) was achieved with 80% methanol in water at 30 °C for 48 h. Under this condition, TFC value of 410.4 mg QE/g of the residue of C. inophyllum leaves, the yield of 2.41%, and IC50 value of 0.054 µg/mL were achieved. Moreover, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was firstly detected in the extract.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103666
JournalArabian Journal of Chemistry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Antioxidant activity
  • Calophyllum inophyllum leaves
  • Extraction
  • Health
  • Total flavonoid content
  • Total phenolic content


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