In a communication using texts input, a phoneme must be mapped to viseme (visual phoneme). Phoneme is the smallest element of a language that can differentiate a meaning. Viseme is derived from a group of phonemes having similar visual appearances, the equivalent unit in the visual domain that models a speech recognition system audio-visually. This paper proposes a classification of visemes in Indonesian Language and establishes phoneme-viseme mapping for Indonesian Language. In Indonesian words, there are lots of absorbed words from other languages. They come from vernacular or foreign languages, such as Arabic and English. From 49 phonemes, 12 Indonesian visemes have been produced, including silent. Viseme classes are defined through linguistic knowledge and grouped by the same visual appearance, and then validated through a survey. The approach used in Indonesian phoneme-to-viseme mapping is based on linguistic data. This is the first research in Indonesian phoneme-to-viseme mapping, which is expected to grow into a reference for further development in human language technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalIAENG International Journal of Computer Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Indonesian language
  • Linguistic approach
  • Phoneme-viseme mapping


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