Photocatalytic Hydrogen Gas Production from NH3 and Alkylamine: Route to Zero Carbon Emission Energy

Syaahidah Abdul Razak, Abdul Hanif Mahadi, Roshan Thotagamuge, Didik Prasetyoko, Hasliza Bahruji*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Hydrogen gas production generated from carbon-free molecules while utilizing solar energy provided a pathway for zero carbon emission energy. In photocatalytic hydrogen gas production, alcohol and oxygenated compounds as sacrificial agents are often added to accelerate the water splitting process while simultaneously decomposing to form H2 and CO2. However, the generation of CO2 requires an additional measure to curb carbon from being released into the atmosphere. This study evaluated the performance of TiO2 photocatalysts to generate hydrogen from NH3 solution as carbon-free molecules. The investigation is extended to alkylamines compounds as sacrificial agents. H2 is linearly produced from NH3 when using Pd/TiO2; however, the rate is reduced after a prolonged photocatalytic reaction. Alkylamines molecules are more susceptible for H2 production than NH3, with the reactivity increased from NH3 < triethylamine < diethylamine < ethylamine. Comparative analysis was also conducted on the amount of H2 and CO2 gases released from alkylamines and alcohols to indicate nitrogen-containing compounds viability as sacrificial agents for carbon-emission free sacrificial agents in photocatalytic water splitting reaction. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1013-1023
Number of pages11
JournalCatalysis Letters
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Alkylamine
  • Carbon-free energy
  • H
  • NH
  • Pd/TiO
  • Photocatalysis


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