54 Citations (Scopus)


Air pollutants originated from natural and anthropogenic sources and able to bio-magnify and bio-accumulate in the trophic levels, thus increase toxicity in the food chain. Various air pollutants (particulate matters (PMs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inorganic air pollutants (IAP), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and black carbon) resulted in adverse effects on environmental and human health after prolonged exposure. These airborne particles can travel in gaseous form for long distance and deteriorate the air quality of downstream areas. Air pollution abatement can be implemented by reducing emissions at source and purifying pollutants with remediation techniques. However, air pollution remained as the dominant issue to cause burden in human and ecosystem well-being. Due to drawbacks like expensive, high maintenance, and likelihood for pollutants’ reemission, existing conventional remediation technologies is insufficient for air pollutants mitigation. Phytoremediation enters the picture of air pollution control as a cost-effective, energy-saving, and environmental-friendly technology in remediating air pollutants. In phytoremediation, plant organs and associating microbes in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere interacted with each other to remediate air pollutants. Phytoremediation of air pollutants involves the rhizosphere of plants as pollutants may deposit in the soil during leaf fall and precipitation. Additionally, the phytoremediation mechanisms involve phytoextraction, phytovolatilization, phytodegradation, phytostabilization, rhizodegradation, and rhizofiltration. A brief overview of phytoremediation mechanisms for each air pollutants is presented. In short, the benefits of phytoremediation and its associated gaps in air pollution control are described.

Original languageEnglish
Article number437
JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2020


  • Air pollution
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Biomagnification
  • Phyllosphere
  • Phytoremediation
  • Remediation
  • Rhizosphere


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