Potential of major by-products from non-ferrous metal industries for CO2 emission reduction by mineral carbonation: a review

Fakhreza Abdul*, Atsushi Iizuka, Hsing Jung Ho, Ken Adachi, Etsuro Shibata

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


By-products from the non-ferrous industry are an environmental problem; however, their economic value is high if utilized elsewhere. For example, by-products that contain alkaline compounds can potentially sequestrate CO2 through the mineral carbonation process. This review discusses the potential of these by-products for CO2 reduction through mineral carbonation. The main by-products that are discussed are red mud from the alumina/aluminum industry and metallurgical slag from the copper, zinc, lead, and ferronickel industries. This review summarizes the CO2 equivalent emissions generated by non-ferrous industries and various data about by-products from non-ferrous industries, such as their production quantities, mineralogy, and chemical composition. In terms of production quantities, by-products of non-ferrous industries are often more abundant than the main products (metals). In terms of mineralogy, by-products from the non-ferrous industry are silicate minerals. Nevertheless, non-ferrous industrial by-products have a relatively high content of alkaline compounds, which makes them potential feedstock for mineral carbonation. Theoretically, considering their maximum sequestration capacities (based on their oxide compositions and estimated masses), these by-products could be used in mineral carbonation to reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, this review attempts to identify the difficulties encountered during the use of by-products from non-ferrous industries for mineral carbonation. This review estimated that the total CO2 emissions from the non-ferrous industries could be reduced by up to 9–25%. This study will serve as an important reference, guiding future studies related to the mineral carbonation of by-products from non-ferrous industries. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78041-78074
Number of pages34
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number32
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • CO sequestration
  • Copper slag
  • Ferronickel slag
  • Lead slag
  • Red mud
  • Sustainable process
  • Zinc slag


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