Bioaugmentation, the addition of cultured microorganisms to enhance the currently existing microbial community, is an option to remediate contaminated areas. Several studies reported the success of the bioaugmentation method in treating heavy metal contaminated soil, but concerns related to the applicability of this method in real-scale application were raised. A comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms of heavy metal treatment by microbes (especially bacteria) and the concerns related to the possible application in the real scale were juxtaposed to show the weakness of the claim. This review proposes the use of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation in treating heavy metal contaminated soil. The performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation in treating heavy metal contaminated soil as well as the mechanisms of removal and interactions between plants and microbes are also discussed in detail. Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation shows greater efficiencies and performs complete metal removal from soil compared with only bioaugmentation. Research related to selection of hyperaccumulator species, potential microbial species, analysis of interaction mechanisms, and potential usage of treating plant biomass after treatment are suggested as future research directions to enhance this currently proposed topic.
- Environmental pollution
- Real scale