5 Citations (Scopus)


Rapid analysis to distinguish porcine and bovine gelatin using a modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor has been studied. The PANI was deposited on the sensor surface using electropolymerization, and then nickel nanoparticles were deposited by layer by layer (LbL) technique. The modified QCM sensor's performance was compared to an unmodified sensor in porcine and bovine gelatin at neutral, acidic, and alkaline conditions. The result shows that the unmodified sensor cannot distinguish between porcine and bovine gelatin, whereas the modified QCM sensor produces a different response. Porcine gelatin shows an increasing frequency response, but in contrast, bovine gelatin decreases frequency response at the alkaline condition. The time response was 2 min with a detection limit of 51.2 ppm and 8.7 ppm for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. Further investigation shows that the modified sensor can analyze porcine gelatin contamination in the a mixed gelatin sample.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere09401
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Bovine gelatin
  • Detection
  • Fast analysis
  • Frequency
  • Marshmallow
  • Porcine gelatin


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