Recent development of mixed matrix membrane as a membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment: A review

Romario Abdullah, Dinia Astira, Alvin Rahmad Widyanto, Hadi Nugraha Cipta Dharma, Alvin Romadhoni Putra Hidayat, Liangga Santoso, Dety Oktavia Sulistiono, Zeni Rahmawati, Triyanda Gunawan, Juhana Jaafar, Yuly Kusumawati, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Hamzah Fansuri*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Wastewater treatment has emerged as the most effective method for addressing the scarcity of clean water, which is expected to cause a worldwide crisis in the near future. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is a cutting-edge technology that combines membrane filtration with biological activity in the form of microorganisms. MBR has been considered the most efficient approach so far owing to its high effluent and relatively small space requirements. The membrane constituent material is an important aspect of producing MBR with maximum process performance. This study extensively evaluated the application of polymers, ceramics, and mixed matrix membranes (MMM) in wastewater treatment performance. MMM has better performance due to its hydrophilic nature, good chemical, mechanical, and thermal stability, and ease of synthesis. Various types of filler in MMM for MBR applications are also discussed, including metals, metal oxides, carbon, MOF, silica, and zeolite. The addition of fillers in the polymer matrix has been able to improve the characteristics of the membrane, including water flux, rejection of pollutants, and resistance to fouling. Subsequently, several important parameters of MMM that affect the performance of MBR, including hydrophilicity, surface charge, surface roughness, module, pore characteristics, and filler charge, have been reviewed. An investigation of the performance of the MBR, such as activated sludge characteristics, operating conditions, and fouling phenomena, is presented. Lastly, this review describes the challenges and perspectives of developing MMM-based MBR in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100485
JournalCase Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Clean water and sanitation
  • Membrane bioreactor
  • Mixed matrix membrane
  • Wastewater


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