CO2 hydrogenation as sustainable route for generation of value-added carbon feedstock is identified as green pathway for mitigation of greenhouse gasses emission. CO2 methanation is one of the promising solutions, which only requires reactions at atmospheric pressure while utilizing metal catalysts to overcome kinetic limitations. Metal catalysts can be promoted to alter reducibities, CO2 adsorption capacities, and H2[sbnd]CO2 dissociation potential. The role of metal promoter such as rare earth elements (Ce, Mn, Co, and La) and alkali and alkali earth metal (Li, Na, Ca, and K) will be discussed within the scope of CO2 methanation. The aspect of catalysts modification towards hydrogen dissociation potential and surface oxygen vacancy will be emphasized to enhance selectivity for methane. Another pathway for CO2 hydrogenation is via further conversion into longer chain molecules such as olefin and ethanol. The benefit of metal promoter will be discussed in this review on the effect towards promoting C[sbnd]C coupling reaction for producing longer chain alcohol and light olefin. The strategies to develop active catalysts for the coupling reaction of C[sbnd]C will be emphasized with the promoter introduction. For the hydrogenation of CO2 to longer chain molecules, the main metal catalysts Ni, Pd, Rh, and Co, and their modification with promoter such as Ga, Cu, and alkali metal Na, K will be discussed. A critical analysis of the CO2 methanation mechanism and further C[sbnd]C reaction to longer chain molecules will be discussed, particularly the effect of metal promoters to stabilize the intermediate and maneuver the catalytic reaction pathway into the desired products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-30
Number of pages17
JournalSouth African Journal of Chemical Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • C products
  • C products
  • CO
  • Hydrogenation
  • Metal promoter


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