5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper review research works on BOD/COD ratio toxicity to three bioindicators, namely: Daphnia magna, Artemia salina, and Brachydanio rerio. Treatment methods are divided into natural, biological, physical, chemical, combined treatment, and phytotechnology for various types of processing operations such as municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants, various effluent treatment, landfill leachate, and organic matter. A. salina shows the lowest toxicity value of the BOD/COD ratio and shows it can withstand processing conditions that are not biodegradable. Then followed by B. rerio and D. magna. Furthermore, the disposal limits are standardized for the protection of freshwater biota. In addition, it must be considered whether there is any other potential of disposal into the receiving environment, and if so, what form of disposal and how much, to protect the biota.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1741-1748
Number of pages8
JournalNature Environment and Pollution Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Artemia salina
  • BOD/COD ratio
  • Brachydanio rerio
  • Daphnia magna
  • Toxicity


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