Sources, fate, distribution, impact, and treatment of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in drinking water

Adhi Yuniarto, Tony Hadibarata*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This review examined the global issue of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in drinking water, including their sources, health effects, and the efficacy of advanced treatment technologies like biodegradation and photocatalytic degradation, using case studies. Recently, endocrine disrupting substances or disruptors in drinking water have become a global issue. Emerging pollutants including endocrine disrupting chemicals can enter the body through water drinking. Endocrine disruptors affect gene expression and damage the endocrine system, harming humans, wildlife, and the environment. Pesticides, detergents and surfactants, plasticizers, industrial compounds, medicines, natural plant derivatives, and heavy metals are endocrine disruptive compounds in water. These endocrine disrupting substances enter raw water bodies by untreated and treated wastewater discharges, runoff, and leachate. However, the convectional drinking water treatment facility cannot cleanse and process endocrine disruptive substances from raw water intakes, resulting in inefficient eliminations and health risks. Mechanisms, benefits, and drawbacks of new water treatment technologies such biodegradation, photocatalytic degradation, and oxidation for endocrine disruptive chemicals are reviewed. Thus, many case studies from the Philippines, Mexico, and Egypt will be examined to highlight the health dangers of EDC exposure.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Quality Management
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • drinking water
  • emerging contaminants
  • endocrine disrupting compounds
  • endocrine disruptors
  • treatments


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