Spatio-temporal estimation of monthly groundwater levels from GPS-based land deformation

Muhammad Zeeshan Ali, Hone Jay Chu*, Tatas, Thomas J. Burbey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Significant subsidence is susceptible to groundwater level variations in aquifer systems. The relation between groundwater level change and global positioning system (GPS) estimated subsidence is spatially variable. Time-dependent spatial regression can be used for the estimation of groundwater level changes using GPS based deformation data. Furthermore, the model can be validated using observed hydraulic head data from available monitoring stations. This study uses GPS station data to estimate the monthly groundwater levels in the west-central Taiwan for the period: 2016–17. Time-dependent spatial regression provides a more realistic estimation of groundwater level changes in response to highly heterogeneous aquifer properties than other methods. The high correlation (r = 0.95) between observed and estimated groundwater levels shows that GPS estimated deformations represent an alternative approach for estimating seasonal groundwater changes. Due to availability of spatially broad/low cost GPS data (compared to the sparse availability groundwater monitoring stations), the use of GPS data represents a powerful solution for future monitoring of estimated seasonal groundwater level changes in areas where only few groundwater observations are available.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105123
JournalEnvironmental Modelling and Software
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • GPS based Deformation
  • Groundwater
  • Seasonal variation
  • Time-dependent spatial regression


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