Due to its excellency and versatility, many synthesis methods and conditions were developed to produce HKUST-1 ([Cu3 (BTC)2 (H2O)3 ]n). However, the diversity of HKUST-1 was actually generated both in terms of characteristics and morphologies. Hence, the consistency of HKUST-1 characteristics and morphologies needs to be maintained. The statistical analysis and optimization provide features to determine the best synthesis condition. Here, a room-temperature coordination modulation method was proposed to maintain the morphology of HKUST-1 while reducing energy consumption. In addition, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to demonstrate the statistical analysis and optimization of the synthesis of HKUST-1. The molar ratio of ligand to metal, reaction time, and acetic acid concentration were studied to determine their effects on HKUST-1. The optimum HKUST-1 was obtained by the synthesis with a molar ratio of ligand to metal of 0.4703 for 27.2 h using 5% v/v acetic acid concentration. The statistical analysis performed a good agreement with the experimental data and showed the significance of three desired parameters on HKUST-1. The optimum HKUST-1 had the adsorption capacity of 1005.22 mg/g with a removal efficiency of 92.31% towards CV dye. It could be reused up to 5 cycles with insignificant decrease in performance.
- Coordination modulation synthesis
- Dye adsorption
- Metal-organic frameworks