Study on Conventional Drinking Water Treatment for Removing Emerging Contaminants: A Literature Review

Hana Azzahra, Ainul Firdatun Nisaa*, Mas Agus Mardyanto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

Abstract

Emerging contaminants (ECs) are substances that can be synthetic or natural, or even microorganisms that are usually not monitored in the environment and could be harmful to the environment and human health. These chemicals can include pharmaceuticals, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen, and industrial chemicals, e.g., perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Common conventional drinking water treatment plants (CDWTP) are not designed to remove emerging contaminants, so these compounds can enter the water system and affect the drinking water treatment process. This study aims to focus on the performance of CDWTP in removing ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and PFOA parameters, as well as determine suitable water treatment units to eliminate these parameters from the system. An extensive literature review was conducted and further analysed using descriptive and qualitative analysis to understand the unit performance in removing emerging contaminants, followed by the simple simulation to determine the types of advanced drinking water treatment facilities that perform better in eliminating ECs. The results show that CDWTP could reduce ibuprofen concentration in water with 40%, 20%, and 36% efficiency through coagulation-flocculation, sand filtration, and disinfection, respectively. Acetaminophen removal is up to 67%, 51%, and 66.45% during coagulation-flocculation, sand filtration, and disinfection, respectively. However, PFOA removal is only up to 5%, 7%, and 2% during coagulation-flocculation, sand filtration, and disinfection, respectively. Membrane treatment technology with reverse osmosis could remove ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and PFOA compounds more effectively with removal efficiencies of 99.99%, 96%, and 100%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012013
JournalIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Volume1307
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024
Event2023 International Conference on Environmental and Earth Sciences, ICEES 2023 - Surabaya, Indonesia
Duration: 25 Oct 202326 Oct 2023

Keywords

  • Acetaminophen
  • Drinking Water Treatment Plant
  • Ibuprofen
  • Perfluorooctanoic acid
  • Water Quality

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