Sub-And supercritical fluids extraction of phytochemical compounds from eucheuma cottonii and gracilaria sp

Siti Machmudah*, Widiyastuti, Sugeng Winardi, Wahyudiono, Hideki Kanda, Motonobu Goto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Subcritical water and supercritical CO2 extraction of phytochemical compounds from Eucheuma cottonii (E. cottonii) and Gracilaria sp. have been investigated at various temperatures and pressures in a semi-batch extractor. These methods are environmentally friendly extraction method without organic solvents other than water and CO2. Eucheuma cottonii (E. cottonii) and Gracilaria sp. are macroalgae that widely grow in the southern coast of Madura Island, Indonesia. They had been used for food in direct human consumption and feedstocks for the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries due to rich both in minerals and essential trace elements. In order to increase the value of macroalgae, it is necessary to separate them into its component with extraction method. Subcritical water extraction was carried out at temperatures of 120 - 200 °C and pressures of 1 - 10 MPa, while supercritical CO2 extraction was conducted at temperatures of 40 - 80 °C and pressures of 15 - 25 MPa with ethanol as co-solvent. The phytochemical compounds extracted by subcritical water consisted of carrageenan and phenolic compounds. Results of FT- IR spectra analysis showed that the macroalgae components were reacted and consumed in these range temperatures. The change of temperature extraction had a strong influence on the yields of extracted carrageenan and phenolic compounds. By using supercritical CO2, the extract contained β-carotene and linoleic acid. Recovery of both β-carotene and linoleic acid increased as increasing temperature and pressure. The addition of ethanol as co-solvent in the supercritical extraction could increase the recovery of β-carotene and linoleic acid ten and two fold. The results confirmed that subcritical water and supercritical CO2 extraction are applicable method for the separation of phenolic compounds from E. cottonii and Gracilaria sp., and may lead to an advanced plant biomass components extraction technology.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationChemical Engineering Transactions
EditorsJiri Jaromir Klemes, Peng Yen Liew, Wai Shin Ho, Jeng Shiun Lim
PublisherItalian Association of Chemical Engineering - AIDIC
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9788895608471
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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