Subcritical Water Process for Reducing Sugar Production from Biomass: Optimization and Kinetics

Maktum Muharja*, Arief Widjaja, Rizki Fitria Darmayanti, Nur Fadhilah, Bramantyo Airlangga, Abdul Halim, Siska Nuri Fadilah, I. Made Arimbawa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The competitive reactions of lignocellulose hydrolysis and monosaccharide degradation in the subcritical water (SCW) hydrolysis of coconut husk were investigated to optimize the reducing sugar yield. Optimization analysis was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) and kinetics studies. Parameters of process optimization were varied at 130-170 °C for 15-45 min. The reducing sugars were measured using the Dinitro salicylic acid method. The sugar yield increased when the temperature increased from 130 °C to 170 °C. The highest reduction sugar yield of 4.946 g/L was obtained at 183.6 °C for 4.8 min and 23.4 liquid/solid ratio (LSR). Kinetics studies were carried out at temperature variations of 150, 170, and 190 °C and pressures of 60, 80, and 100 bar for 5 to 60 min. The yield of reducing sugar decreased with increasing temperature. The kinetic model 2B is the best method to explain the competitive reaction kinetics of coconut husk hydrolysis. This research is an innovation to increase the reducing sugar to make the process more commercially viable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)839-849
Number of pages11
JournalBulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Coconut Husk
  • Kinetic Model
  • Response Surface Methodology
  • Subcritical water


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