Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the most vital data to generate drainage networks and to provide critical terrain factors and hydrologic derivatives, such as slope, aspect, and streamflow. The accuracy of generated drainage features is extensively dependent on the quality and resolution of DEM, such as LiDAR-derived DEM. Contrary, it has a high level of roughness and complexity. Thus, smoothing methods are sometimes employed to conquer the roughness. This paper presents feature-preserving DEM smoothing (FPDEM-S) and edge-preserving DEM smoothing (EPDEM-S) approaches to smooth surface complexity in kind of preserving small drainage features using the 0.5 m–resolution LiDAR DEM of the Kedungbener River area in Kebumen Regency, Indonesia. Entangling linear morphometric factors, those smoothing approaches delivered a slight difference of stream number, with the FPDEM-S stream length ratio performing 7% better tendencies. The FPDEM-S method perormed better than EPDEM-S in this study area to provide an optimal smoothed LiDAR DEM at certain parameter values. Summarising that two smoothing methods approaches performed similar characteristics of watershed as an oval structure close to the circular shape. Also, it can be revealed that the watershed did not reach maturity phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-203
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Image and Data Fusion
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • drainage features
  • edge-preserving smoothing
  • feature-preserving smoothing
  • morphometric analysis


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