Survey of thermal environment of residences using air conditioners in Surabaya, Indonesia

Tomoko Uno*, Shuichi Hokoi, Sri Nastiti N. Ekasiwi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter reports the results of a survey on the attitudes of residents towards the use of air conditioners in Indonesia. A questionnaire survey and measurements of the thermal environment were carried out. With increasing income, the percentage of residents who felt that air conditioning was necessary also increased. Once residents start to use air conditioners, they continue their use. When an air conditioner is used, the lowest room temperature ranges from 23 to 29 °C, which is lower than that observed in Japan. Air conditioners are typically used around 14:00 and during sleeping time; this is similar to the situation in Naha, a subtropical area of Japan. Also, the duration of air conditioner use is longer than that in Japan. As a result of these findings, the consumption of energy used for cooling is expected to increase in this area.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSustainable Houses and Living in the Hot-Humid Climates of Asia
PublisherSpringer Singapore
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9789811084652
ISBN (Print)9789811084645
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2018


  • Air conditioning on/off
  • Consciousness of use of air conditioner
  • Field survey
  • Hot-humid climate
  • Operating time of air conditioner
  • Temperature setting of air conditioner
  • Thermal environment


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