System Dynamics Model of Retrofitting Ship System to Comply with Ballast Water Convention

Hardiyanto, Trika Pitana*, Dhimas Widhi Handani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention was adopted in 2017. The Convention requires ships to comply with Standard D-2. Every fleet, especially on international routes, must install ballast water treatment technology before September 2024. Shipowners must install Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) by retrofitting their ships. Retrofitting a vessel is more complicated than installing it on ship construction because the basic structure of existing ships does not consider adding new technology. Several parties, such as the manufacturer, shipyard, class, and shipping, influence the retrofitting process. This study explored the total cost of retrofitting ship systems by developing a model. The model helps estimate costs using a system dynamics method. Based on expert interviews, the cost structure breakdown sets the structure cost model. Based on this model, the leverage variable is discussed as a sensitive factor in increasing investment. The results of this analysis are used as recommendations to shipowners before retrofitting their ships.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-110
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal on Engineering Applications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Ballast Water Management
  • Retrofitting Ship System
  • System Dynamics


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