Oil spills that contaminate the environment can harm the surrounding ecosystem. The oil contains petroleum hydrocarbon which is toxic to the environment hence it needs to be removed. The use of bacteria as remediation media was modified by immobilizing into a matrix hence the bacteria can survive in harsh conditions. In this research, the ability of biosurfactant-producing bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Ralstonia pickettii) immobilized in the PVA/SA/bentonite matrix was tested in remediation on oil-contaminated soil. The immobilized beads filled with bacteria were added to the original soil sample, as well as washed soil. The beads were characterized by using FTIR and SEM. Based on FTIR analysis, the PVA/SA/bentonite@bacteria beads had similar functional groups compared to each other. SEM analysis showed that the beads had non-smooth structure, while the bacteria were spread outside and agglomerated. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis results showed that immobilized B. subtilis and R. pickettii completely degraded tetratriacontane and heneicosane, respectively. Meanwhile, after soil washing pre-treatment, immobilized bacteria could completely degrade octadecane (P. aeruginosa and R. pickettii) and tetratriacontane (P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis). Based on those results, immobilized bacteria could degrade oil compounds. The degradation result was influenced by the enzymes produced, the ability of the bacteria, the suitability of the test media, and the matrix used. Therefore, this study can be a reference for further soil remediation using eco-friendly methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21163-21170
Number of pages8
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number31
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2023


Dive into the research topics of 'The application of biosurfactant-producing bacteria immobilized in PVA/SA/bentonite bio-composite for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil bioremediation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this