Although the hull of a recently dry-docked large ship is expected to be relatively smooth, surface scanning and experimentation reveal that it can exhibit an “orange-peel” roughness pattern with an equivalent sand-grain roughness height (Formula presented.) = 0. 101mm. Using the known (Formula presented.) value and integral boundary layer evolution, a recently cleaned and coated full-scale ship was predicted to experience a significant increase in the average coefficient of friction (Formula presented.) and total hydrodynamic resistance (Formula presented.) during operation. Here the report also discusses two recently reported empirical estimations that can estimate ks directly from measured surface topographical parameters, by-passing the need for experiments on replicated surfaces. The empirical estimations are found to have an accuracy of 4.5 − 5 percentage points in (Formula presented.).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)372-386
Number of pages15
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Turbulent boundary layer
  • roughness estimation
  • ship-hull roughness
  • skin friction drag


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