Immobilization of heavy metal ions using geopolymer paste is a promising way to solve the problem with heavy metal waste from industries. This research focused on the immobilization of Pb2+ and Cd2+ which are common heavy metal waste with distinctive cation size. The cations were immobilized by geopolymerization process to form geopolymer paste. The paste was prepared by using fly ash from a power plant in Cilacap, Indonesia, with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio = 3 and S/L = 1.6. According to XRF analysis, the ash is type C fly ash and additional Al(OH)3 was needed to achieve the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio. A solution of Cd2+ or Pb2+ from their respective nitrate salts was added to the geopolymer mixture to make an immobilized Cd2+ or Pb2+ in a fly ash geopolymer matrix. Compressive strength tests showed that the maximum strength was achieved when 3855 ppm of Cd2+ or 765 ppm of Pb2+ was added to the geopolymer mixture. The change of strength is explained to be caused by the filling of geopolymer cavities that were formed during the geopolymerization process. Due to the smaller size of Cd2+ than Pb2+, the strongest geopolymer paste was achieved at higher Cd2+ concentration than Pb2+. X-ray diffraction analyses results show that the addition of Cd2+ or Pb2+ shift the position on hump to larger 2θ.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProperties and Application of Geopolymers
EditorsJanuarti Jaya Ekaputri, Januarti Jaya Ekaputri, Antoni Antoni
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9783038355441
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Event2nd Malaysia-Indonesia Geopolymer Symposium, 2015 - Surabaya, Indonesia
Duration: 25 Oct 201527 Oct 2015

Publication series

NameMaterials Science Forum
ISSN (Print)0255-5476
ISSN (Electronic)1662-9752


Conference2nd Malaysia-Indonesia Geopolymer Symposium, 2015


  • Compressive strength
  • Fly ash
  • Geopolymer
  • Heavy metal immobilization


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