The effect of runner installation and design on the performance of gravitational vortex water turbine

Erna Septyaningrum, Sutardi Sutardi*, Ridho Hantoro, Achmad Rijal Firdausi, Rio Adi Prasetyo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Development in hydropower technology leads to modern and efficient technology. The emergence of gravitational vortex water turbine (GVWT) is a promising invention. It is suitable for harnessing energy from low head and flow rate water sources, ranging from approximately 0.7–2 m and 0.03–5 m3/s. A series of experimental studies had been conducted to develop the GVWT with a propeller runner. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of runner design, including the number of blades, runner diameter and runner installation position, on the GVWT’s performance. A preliminary study on a dual-stage GVWT was carried out to increase the single-stage GVWT performance. The experimental result shows that 4-blade and 5-blade runners provide better performance than 3-blade runner and 6-blade runner. For a 5-blade runner, the optimal installation position is between 60% and 70% of depth. Installing a runner in the basin produces a blockage effect, which increase the runner performance. An extremely large blockage ratio causes stoppage which is undesirable. The maximum allowed blockage ratio is 0.8. The preliminary study on the dual-stage GVWT proves that it increases the GVWT’s performance. The efficiency of GVWT ranges from 25% − 50%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1434-1446
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Green Energy
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Blockage
  • dual stage
  • hydropower
  • installation position
  • propeller
  • vortex


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