The Effect of Sodium Sulfide and Anthracite Dosage on Selective Reduction of Limonite

Fathan Bahfie*, Yepi Triapriani, Achmad Shofi, Fajar Nurjaman, Slamet Sumardi, Ulin Herlina, Riska N. Tirmayani, Pulung Karo Karo, Diah Susanti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The process of selectively reducing limonite ore involves adding 10 wt% sodium sulfide and using anthracite as a reducing agent in varying amounts (5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%). The research aims to optimize the extraction process by studying how factors like reduction temperature, holding time, and reducing agent dosage affect on iron and nickel content and recovery. The ideal conditions identified are a temperature of 1150 °C, a 10 wt% additive, and a corresponding 10 wt% reducing agent amount, with a crucial 60-min reduction process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show dominant phases like iron-nickel (FeNi), iron sulfide (FeS), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and wustite (FeO) under these conditions, indicating complex chemical interactions. Impressive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) test results precisely measure a nickel component with a 3.03 wt% and a recovery rate of 89.32%, highlighting the process’s effectiveness in extracting potential from limonitic nickel ore. The resulting ferronickel alloy has a controlled particle size of 29.23 µm. The study emphasizes the influence of sodium sulfide and anthracite dosage on the selective reduction of limonite ore.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMining, Metallurgy and Exploration
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Anthracite
  • Holding time
  • Limonite ore
  • Selective reduction
  • Sodium sulfide
  • Temperature


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