The optimization of silica gel synthesis from chemical bottle waste using response surface methodology

Yatim Lailun Ni'mah*, Suprapto Suprapto, Ayu Perdana K. Subandi, Nabila Eka Yuningsih, Anggun Cahyaning Pertiwi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


To reduce the amount of hazardous chemical bottle waste in the environment, we report the optimization research of silica extraction in chemical bottle waste into silica gel. Alkali fusion and sol–gel process were utilised to prepare silica gel effectively. The alkali fusion process was carried out by adding sodium hydroxide to produce sodium silicate. Afterwards, silica gel was prepared by the sol–gel method using hydrochloric acid. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was applied to Optimisation factors the poptimiseactors affecting the silica recovery. The factors that optimised mass ratio, particle size, and temperature. The optimum recovery of silica gel was obtained by SiO2: NaOH mass ratio of 1:3, the particle size of 63–74 µm, and a temperature of 800 °C. The purity of silica gel optimum is 63.74% characterised using X-ray fluorescence. The structure of silica gel is the appearance of amorphous peaks at 2θ 20-30° characterised using an x-ray diffractogram. The silica gel surface was characterises using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray. It showed an irregular surface and characteristic showed that silica gel had a radius of 15.74 nm and a specific surface area of 297.08 m2.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104329
JournalArabian Journal of Chemistry
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Alkali decomposition
  • Box-Behnken design
  • Chemical bottle waste
  • Silica Gel
  • Sol-gel method


Dive into the research topics of 'The optimization of silica gel synthesis from chemical bottle waste using response surface methodology'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this