3 Citations (Scopus)


Human microbiome interact reciprocally with the host. Recent findings showed the capability of microorganisms to response towards host signaling molecules, such as hormones. Studies confirmed the complex response of bacteria in response to hormones exposure. These hormones impact many aspects on bacteria, such as the growth, metabolism, and virulence. The effects of each hormone seem to be species-specific. The most studied hormones are cathecolamines also known as stress hormones that consists of epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine. These hormones affect the growth of bacteria either inhibit or enhance by acting like a siderophore. Epinephrine and norepinephrine have also been reported to activate QseBC, a quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria and eventually enhances the virulence of pathogens. Other hormones were also reported to play a role in shaping human microbiome composition and affect their behavior. Considering the complex response of bacteria on hormones, it highlights the necessity to take the impact of hormones on bacteria into account in studying human health in relation to human microbiome.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106125
JournalMicrobial Pathogenesis
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • Bacteria
  • Hormones
  • Human microbiome
  • Microorganism


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