13 Citations (Scopus)


This study aims to investigate the detailed thermal environments in apartments of Surabaya, Indonesia and discuss their potential passive cooling strategies. Major thermal parameters, vertical distribution of air temperature and surface temperature of walls/ceiling were measured in one of the representative units of three types of apartments respectively, under different natural ventilation conditions. The results revealed that the unit in the old public apartment showed better thermal environments compared to those in the other two apartments. It is very difficult to achieve thermal comfort during most of the day particularly in the new public and private apartments by means of natural ventilation alone. Building orientation, insufficient shading devices, and building materials are some of the factors causing hot conditions particularly in the newly emerging middle-class apartments. Several passive cooling strategies were proposed based on the measurement results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-467
Number of pages9
JournalProcedia Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, ISHVAC 2015 Joint with the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, COBEE 2015 - Tianjin, China
Duration: 12 Jul 201515 Jul 2015


  • Apartment
  • Hot-humid climate
  • Indonesia
  • Natural ventilation
  • Thermal comfort


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