Conversion of lignocellulosic biowastes from agricultural industry into nanocrystalline cellulose provides pathway to reduce environmental pollution while enhancing the economic value of biowastes. Nanocellulose (NCC) with uniform morphology was isolated from pepper (Piper nigrum L.) stalk waste (PW) using acid hydrolysis method. The role of inorganic acids (sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid), organic acids (oxalic acid, citric acid, acetic acid) and variation of sonication times were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, self-assembled structure, crystallinity, particle size, zeta potential and thermal stability of the isolated nanocellulose. Hydrolysis using inorganic acids transformed cellulose from PW into a spherical shaped NCC at ~33–67 nm of average diameter. Meanwhile hydrolysis in organic acids produced rod-shaped NCC at 210–321 nm in length. This study highlighted the role of acidity strength for organic acid and inorganic acid in controlling the level of hydrogen bond dissociation and the dissolution of amorphous fragments, which consequently directing the morphology and the physicochemical properties of NCCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)593-605
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2022


  • Hydrolysis
  • Inorganic acid
  • Nanocellulose
  • Organic acid
  • Pepper waste
  • Sonication


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