Unknown PD distinction in HVAC/HVDC by antenna-sensor with pulse sequence analysis

S. M.Kayser Azam, Mohamadariff Othman*, Hazlee Azil Illias, Tarik Abdul Latef, Daniar Fahmi, Wong Jee Keen Raymond, Wan Nor Liza Wan Mahadi, A. K.M.Zakir Hossain, M. Z.A. Abd. Aziz, Ahmad Ababneh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ultra-high frequency (UHF) antenna-sensors are becoming popular for non-invasive detection of unwanted electric discharge i.e., partial discharge (PD) in high-voltage (HV) systems. Early PD signals are weak for detection and classification by UHF antenna-sensors. Early PD detection and distinction are crucial to prevent equipment failure. Typically, PD signals are distinguished in HVAC by phase resolved PD (PRPD) patterns. Whereas in HVDC, some unconventional methods are applied. However, a blind distinction of PDs under unknown HVAC/HVDC conditions still remains a challenge. In this article, we address this issue by using a lotus-shaped UHF antenna-sensor for early PD detection. Unlike cut-and-try technique-based conventionally designed bio-inspired antennas, our sensor is designed by a precisely derived equivalent circuit model to systematically optimize antenna gain over size to detect early PDs. The fabricated sensor has a size of 18×11 cm2, an average realized gain of 3.05 dBi in 740–1600 MHz frequencies, and a sensitivity index of 154.04 dBi/m2. The sensor prototype is applied to wirelessly distinguish PD signals from unknown sources under HVAC and HVDC by pulse sequence analysis. Early detection, characterization, and distinction of unknown PD signals are ensured by the proposed sensor and interpretation technique. This work offers a distinctive PD sensing method for HVAC/HVDC converter stations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)457-471
Number of pages15
JournalAlexandria Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Antenna
  • PD classification
  • PD detection
  • PD distinction
  • Partial discharge
  • UHF sensor


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