Unscented Kalman filter for a low-cost GNSS/IMU-based mobile mapping application under demanding conditions

Mokhamad Nur Cahyadi*, Tahiyatul Asfihani, Hendy Fitrian Suhandri, Risa Erfianti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


For the last two decades, low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers have been used in various applications. These receivers are mini-size, less expensive than geodetic-grade receivers, and in high demand. Irrespective of these outstanding features, low-cost GNSS receivers are potentially poorer hardwares with internal signal processing, resulting in lower quality. They typically come with low-cost GNSS antenna that has lower performance than their counterparts, particularly for multipath mitigation. Therefore, this research evaluated the low-cost GNSS device performance using a high-rate kinematic survey. For this purpose, these receivers were assembled with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor, which actively transmited data on acceleration and orientation rate during the observation. The position and navigation parameter data were obtained from the IMU readings, even without GNSS signals via the U-blox F9R GNSS/IMU device mounted on a vehicle. This research was conducted in an area with demanding conditions, such as an open sky area, an urban environment, and a shopping mall basement, to examine the device's performance. The data were processed by two approaches: the Single Point Positioning-IMU (SPP/IMU) and the Differential GNSS-IMU (DGNSS/IMU). The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) was selected as a filtering algorithm due to its excellent performance in handling nonlinear system models. The result showed that integrating GNSS/IMU in SPP processing mode could increase the accuracy in eastward and northward components up to 68.28% and 66.64%. Integration of DGNSS/IMU increased the accuracy in eastward and northward components to 93.02% and 93.03% compared to the positioning of standalone GNSS. In addition, the positioning accuracy can be improved by reducing the IMU noise using low-pass and high-pass filters. This application could still not gain the expected position accuracy under signal outage conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-176
Number of pages11
JournalGeodesy and Geodynamics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Differential GNSS-IMU (DGNSS/IMU)
  • Low-cost GNSS
  • Outage conditions
  • Single Point Positioning-IMU (SPP/IMU)
  • Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF)


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