Utilization of red mud waste into mesoporous ZSM-5 for methylene blue adsorption-desorption studies

Hellna Tehubijuluw, Riki Subagyo, Maulil Fatma Yulita, Reva Edra Nugraha, Yuly Kusumawati, Hasliza Bahruji, Aishah Abdul Jalil, Hartati Hartati, Didik Prasetyoko*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Red mud as industrial waste from bauxite was utilized as a precursor for the synthesis of mesoporous ZSM-5. A high concentration of iron oxide in red mud was successfully removed using alkali fusion treatment. Mesoporous ZSM-5 was synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) as a template via dual-hydrothermal method, and the effect of crystallization time was investigated towards the formation of mesopores. Characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the formation of cubic crystallite ZSM-5 with high surface area and mesopore volume within 6 h of crystallization. Increasing the crystallization time revealed the evolution of highly crystalline ZSM-5; however, the surface area and mesoporosity were significantly reduced. The effect of mesoporosity was investigated on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of MB adsorption on mesoporous ZSM-5 was carried out at a variation of adsorption parameters such as the concentration of MB solution, the temperatures of solution, and the amount of adsorbent. Finally, methanol, 1-butanol, acetone, hydrochloric acid (HCl), and acetonitrile were used as desorbing agents to investigate the reusability and stability of mesoporous ZSM-5 as an adsorbent for MB removal. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37354-37370
Number of pages17
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number28
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Adsorbent
  • Adsorption
  • Desorption
  • Mesoporous ZSM-5
  • Methylene blue
  • Red mud


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